An Evaluation of the Performance of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Version 3

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dc.contributor.author SLIVINSKI, L. C.
dc.contributor.author COMPO, G. P.
dc.contributor.author SARDESHMUKH, P. D.
dc.contributor.author WHITAKER, J. S.
dc.contributor.author MCCOLL, C.
dc.contributor.author ALLAN, R. J.
dc.contributor.author BROHAN, P.
dc.contributor.author YIN, X.
dc.contributor.author SMITH, C. A.
dc.contributor.author SPENCER, L. J.
dc.contributor.author VOSE, R. S.
dc.contributor.author ROHRER, M.
dc.contributor.author CONROY, R. P.
dc.contributor.author SCHUSTER, D. C.
dc.contributor.author KENNEDY, J. J.
dc.contributor.author ASHCROFT, L.
dc.contributor.author BRÖNNIMANN, S.
dc.contributor.author BRUNET, M.
dc.contributor.author CAMUFFO, D.
dc.contributor.author CORNES, R.
dc.contributor.author CRAM, T. A.
dc.contributor.author DOMÍNGUEZ-CASTRO, F.
dc.contributor.author FREEMAN, J. E.
dc.contributor.author GERGIS, J.
dc.contributor.author HAWKINS, E.
dc.contributor.author JONES, P. D.
dc.contributor.author KUBOTA, H.
dc.contributor.author LEE, T. C.
dc.contributor.author LORREY, A. M.
dc.contributor.author LUTERBACHER, J.
dc.contributor.author MOCK, C. J.
dc.contributor.author PRZYBYLAK, R. K.
dc.contributor.author PUDMENZKY, C.
dc.contributor.author SLONOSKY, V. C.
dc.contributor.author TINZ, B.
dc.contributor.author TREWIN, B.
dc.contributor.author WANG, X. L.
dc.contributor.author WILKINSON, C.
dc.contributor.author WOOD, K.
dc.contributor.author Wyszyński, Przemysław
dc.date.accessioned 2021-01-26T19:58:04Z
dc.date.available 2021-01-26T19:58:04Z
dc.date.issued 2021-01
dc.identifier.citation Journal of Climate vol.34 (4), 2021, pp. 1417–1438.
dc.identifier.isbn 1520-0442 (eISSN)
dc.identifier.issn 0894-8755
dc.identifier.other https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0505.1
dc.identifier.uri http://repozytorium.umk.pl/handle/item/6456
dc.description.abstract The performance of a new historical reanalysis, the NOAA–CIRES–DOE Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 3 (20CRv3), is evaluated via comparisons with other reanalyses and independent observations. This dataset provides global, 3-hourly estimates of the atmosphere from 1806 to 2015 by assimilating only surface pressure observations and prescribing sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration, and radiative forcings. Comparisons with independent observations, other reanalyses, and satellite products suggest that 20CRv3 can reliably produce atmospheric estimates on scales ranging from weather events to long-term climatic trends. Not only does 20CRv3 recreate a “best estimate” of the weather, including extreme events, it also provides an estimate of its confidence through the use of an ensemble. Surface pressure statistics suggest that these confidence estimates are reliable. Comparisons with independent upper-air observations in the Northern Hemisphere demonstrate that 20CRv3 has skill throughout the twentieth century. Upper-air fields from 20CRv3 in the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century correlate well with full-input reanalyses, and the correlation is predicted by the confidence fields from 20CRv3. The skill of analyzed 500-hPa geopotential heights from 20CRv3 for 1979–2015 is comparable to that of modern operational 3–4-day forecasts. Finally, 20CRv3 performs well on climate time scales. Long time series and multidecadal averages of mass, circulation, and precipitation fields agree well with modern reanalyses and station- and satellite-based products. 20CRv3 is also able to capture trends in tropospheric-layer temperatures that correlate well with independent products in the twentieth century, placing recent trends in a longer historical context.
dc.description.sponsorship The NOAA–CIRES–DOE Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project version 3 used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and used resources of NOAA’s Remotely Deployed High-Performance Computing Systems. Support for the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project version 3 dataset is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research (BER), by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Program Office, and by the NOAA Physical Sciences Laboratory. The efforts of the NERSC consultants are acknowledged. The technical support of the IT group of the NOAA Physical Sciences Laboratory is acknowledged. Don Hooper of NOAA PSL and CIRES is especially acknowledged for his extensive work to make 20CRv3 freely available from PSL. Comments from Steve Penny (CIRES and NOAA) on an earlier version improved this manuscript. John Christy (UAH) is thanked for access to the UAH TLT fields and further discussions about comparing reanalyses to the UAH data. Carl Mears (RSS) is thanked for access to the RSS TLT fields and discussions about their uncertainty. Collaborations with N. Rayner and H. Titchner of the Met Office in the development, production, and use of HadISST boundary conditions are gratefully acknowledged. Collaborations with B. Giese of Texas A&M University in the iterative development, production, and use of the SODAsi boundary conditions are gratefully acknowledged. The efforts of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Data Engineering and Curation section, especially C.-F. Shih are acknowledged. M. Benoy for the Citizen Science Unit of the Australian Meteorological Association, working with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, is gratefully acknowledged for ongoing support. H. Mächel’s (DWD) contribution of German climate observations is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their invaluable contributions of observations to the ISPD: L. Alexander (University of New South Wales), M. Barriendos (University of Barcelona), T. Brandsma (KNMI), Y. Brugnara (University of Bern), O. Bulygina (All-Russia Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information), A. Dawson (University of Aberdeen), J. Filipiak (University of Gdansk), P. Groisman (NC State University Research Scholar at NOAA NCEI), J. Holopainen (University of Helsinki), D. Jones (Australian Bureau of Meteorology), T. Jonsson (Icelandic Met Office), S. Jourdain (Météo-France), A. Kaplan (Columbia University), F. Le Blancq (States of Jersey Meteorological Department), J. A. López (Instituto Nacional de Meteorología, Madrid), M. Maugeri (Università degli Studi di Milano), O. Mestre (Météo-France), A. Moberg (Stockholm University), GWK Moore (University of Toronto), Ø. Nordli (Norwegian Meteorological Institute), C. Reason (University of Cape Town), M. Rodwell (ECMWF), T. Schmith (Danish Meteorological Institute), L. Srnec (Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service), M. Tolstykh (Hydrometcentre of Russia), M. A. Valente (Universidade de Lisboa), N. Westcott (Midwestern Regional Climate Center), and P. Woodworth (National Oceanography Centre, United Kingdom). IBTrACS data are courtesy of K. Knapp (NOAA/NCEI). The authors thank R. Crouthamel (IEDRO) for his continuing support of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis. R. Allan is supported by funding from the U.K. Newton Fund [which is managed by the U.K. Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)], under its CSSP China and WCSSP South Africa projects, plus the EU Copernicus C3S Data Rescue Service. He also acknowledges the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia, and the Centre for Maritime Historical Studies, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom, where he is an Adjunct and Honorary Professor, respectively. S. Brönnimann was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (project 188701). M. Brunet was funded by the European Commission via the Copernicus Climate Change Service Contract 311a Lot1 for Collection and Processing of In Situ Observations–Data Rescue. J. Gergis was funded by Australian Research Council Project DE130100668 and the Australian National University’s Futures Scheme. E. Hawkins was supported by the U.K. National Centre for Atmosphere Science. J. Kennedy was supported by the Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme funded by BEIS and DEFRA. H. Kubota was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (20K20328, 19H00562) funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). A. M. Lorrey was supported by the NIWA Strategic Science Investment Fund project “Climate Present and Past” Contract CAOA2001. The research work of R. Przybylak and P. Wyszyński was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (Grants DEC-2012/07/B/ST10/04002 and 2015/19/B/ST10/02933). The Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany is thanked for financial support to digitise, quality control, and analyse early instrumental meteorological data across the world. The following people are financially supported by the University of Giessen and digitised subdaily pressure data: L. Dergianli, G. Kelly, D. Xoplaki, V. Iakovoglou, E. Kaimasidou, E. Tsalkitzidou, M. Athanasiou, L. Behr, A. Megalou, C. Chandolia, E. Fleitmann, P. Zafeiropoulou, N. Kong, M. Ostheimer, S. Dafka, K. Pometti, N. Gouta, P. Katsaouni, Z. Theorchari, A. Theocharis, F. Williams, J. Schermuly, C. Mett, L. Theile, J. Zuckermann, P. Strehlau, C. Samaras, A. Tsikerdekis, C. Athanasiou, J. Braun, T. Sperzel, J. Damster, N. Luther, M. Miltscheff-Petroff, M. Kelbling, D. Griechbaum, M. Hänsgen, and J. Viezens. L. Dergianli and E. Xoplaki are acknowledged for QC, coordination, management, and preparation of all University of Giessen data. M. Brunet, J. Luterbacher, R. J. Allan, G. P. Compo, P. Jones, S. Brönnimann, and A. Lorrey acknowledge Package 3 of the Copernicus Climate Change Service 311a Lot1 for Collection and Processing of In Situ Observations Data Rescue. J. Luterbacher acknowledges Climate Science for Service Partnership China Project (CSSP). Use of the U.S. Daily Weather Map is courtesy of NOAA Central Library Data Imaging Project. The 20CR homepage is located at https://go.usa.gov/XTd. The scientific results and conclusions, as well as any views of opinions expressed herein, are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the University of Colorado, NOAA, the Department of Commerce, or any other organization associated with this work.
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher American Meteorological Society
dc.relation.ispartofseries Journal of Climate;34: 4, 1417–1438
dc.rights Attribution 3.0 Poland
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/pl/
dc.subject Synoptic-scale processes
dc.subject Surface pressure
dc.subject Surface observations
dc.subject Data assimilation
dc.subject Reanalysis data
dc.subject Decadal variability
dc.title An Evaluation of the Performance of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Version 3
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article

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