Problematyka adaptacji i transformacji na przykładzie krzyżackich grodów z terenu Prus i Inflant

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dc.contributor.author Poliński, Dariusz
dc.date.accessioned 2017-09-08T06:47:42Z
dc.date.available 2017-09-08T06:47:42Z
dc.date.issued 2017-07-25
dc.identifier.citation Archaeologia Historica Polona, Vol. 24, pp. 261-283
dc.identifier.issn 1425-3534
dc.identifier.other doi:10.12775/AHP.2016.012
dc.identifier.uri http://repozytorium.umk.pl/handle/item/4579
dc.description.abstract The subject of this article are strongholds adapted to the needs of the Teutonic Order, associated with different Old Prussian lands (Pomesania, Pogesania, Sasna, Bartia, Galindia, Warmia, Natangia, Sambia, Skalvia and Nadrovia) and Livonia (Semigallia, Latgale, Courland, Estonia). A particular attention was paid to the extent of adaptation works and the question of the transformation of these forts into mortared castles. While selecting examples of objects the priority was given to ones on which remains archaeological excavations were carried out. Amongst the described strongholds of the Teutonic Order dominated forts adapted based on structures conquered or taken over from the local population (25 defensive complexes, i.e. about 63%). Amongst them the majority – 15 structures (60%) – was transformed into mortared castles. In the group of strongholds which were transformed into mortared complexes (29 structures; groups II–IV) nearly even share have edifices adapted and created on so-called greenfield, which is characteristic of Old Prussia, while in Livonia the majority consisted of structures created on so-called greenfield (60%). Trying to determine the scope of work at forts adapted by the Teutonic Order, we encounter a difficulty of separating older elements from the Teutonic Order ones, which, obviously, makes a basis for concluding very limited. Even in the case of structures, where the scope of archaeological works was significant (Stary Dzierzgoń and Weklice), sometimes we are not able to resolve fundamental issues. It is even more difficult to continue the study of the characteristics of wooden and earthen fortified structures of the Teutonic Order. Generally it can be said that the scope of the Order’s adaptations was mainly related to reconstruction and/or strengthening forts defence systems, which was primarily associated with ramparts (e.g. heighten them and constructing new ones) and moats (deepen). Also strongholds’ interiors vere adopted (ground levelling, paving baileys and transportation routes, internal division by ramparts and moats). It is hard not to point also the construction of various types of defensive or dwelling structures, but in this case – to date – no structure/structures which association with the Teutonic Order phase of given fort is not controversial (see Stary Dzierzgoń, Weklice, Podzamcze, Karkus). After all, potentially largest possibilities in the discussed issues still lie in archaeological research, both traditional and non-invasive, even of those structures which from today’s perspective have been excavated ‘too early’, and the range of field work carried out there was significant.
dc.description.abstract Tematyka artykułu dotyczy grodów z terenu Prus i Inflant, adaptowanych na potrzeby zakonu krzyżackiego, przy czym szczególną uwagę zwrócono na zakres prac adaptacyjnych oraz zagadnienie transformacji w zamki murowane. Zagadnienie zaprezentowano w odniesieniu do czterech wyróżnionych grup grodów. Priorytetowo potraktowano obiekty, na pozostałościach których przeprowadzono badania archeologiczne.
dc.language.iso pol
dc.rights Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Poland
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/pl/
dc.subject Old Prussia
dc.subject Livonia
dc.subject Teutonic Order
dc.subject strongholds
dc.subject adaptation
dc.subject transformation
dc.subject archaeological research
dc.subject Prusy
dc.subject Inflanty
dc.subject zakon krzyżacki
dc.subject grody
dc.subject adaptacja
dc.subject transformacja
dc.subject badania archeologiczne
dc.title Problematyka adaptacji i transformacji na przykładzie krzyżackich grodów z terenu Prus i Inflant
dc.title.alternative Issues of adaptation and transformation on the example of the Teutonic Order strongholds in Old P russia and Livonia
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article

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