Chełmno i Toruń. Początki miast na ziemi chełmińskiej

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dc.contributor.author Chudziak, Wojciech
dc.contributor.author Bojarski, Jacek
dc.date.accessioned 2017-02-03T07:01:33Z
dc.date.available 2017-02-03T07:01:33Z
dc.date.issued 2016-10-19
dc.identifier.citation Archaeologia Historica Polona, Vol. 23, pp. 83-106
dc.identifier.issn 1425-3534
dc.identifier.other doi:10.12775/AHP.2015.003
dc.identifier.uri http://repozytorium.umk.pl/handle/item/4041
dc.description.abstract The starting point for a discussion on the origins of towns in Chełmno Land is the content of the incorporation document issued in 1233 for Chełmno and Toruń – called the Chełmno privilege – which become the source of the law system for the towns. The origins of both centres, however, were different and resulted from different settlement, cultural and economic conditions. This paper discusses relations between newly incorporated towns (Chełmno and Toruń) and pre-corporation forms of settlement of early medieval traditions (Kałdus – Starogród and Stary Toruń – Toruń). An attempt was undertaken to answer the question as to whether the incorporation decisions made by the Teutonic Knights a few years after arriving at the Kuyavian-Chełmno border, took into account – both in the case of Chełmno and Toruń – similar socio-economic, demographic and settlement conditions; or whether we are dealing here with different models for the creation of the aforementioned urban centres. Was the basis of incorporation in both cases a prior settlement structure, or were there substantial differences between them in this regard? Therefore, the results of previous archaeological excavations conducted in Chełmno and Toruń were compared, including the available written sources. Taking into account the facts concerning the origins of these centres, especially their pre-incorporation stage, it was found that more favourable development conditions occurred near today’s Kałdus (pre-incorporation Chełmno). A castellany existed in Chełmno, the capital of the region, with the name recorded in written sources (Culmen). There was a well-developed settlement background too, as confirmed by discoveries of large craft and trade settlements and extensive cemeteries related to them. In contrast to Chełmno, the name of Toruń was not recorded in written sources older than the time of the town’s incorporation. In this area, there are no developed settlement structures, except for several points. This indicates that the town incorporated by the Teutonic Knights was founded on a so-called greenfield sites, in the vicinity of an early medieval settlement located on the Vistula River crossing (Stary Toruń), then translocated to the present site and situated at the back of a small border fortress (Postolsko – at pre-Teutonic Knights stronghold). The common elements of the first two incorporations are political and communication conditions; both Chełmno and Toruń were located on Chełmno Land’s border, at major crossings, and along overland and water long-range trade routes at the entrance to Chełmno Land from the Kuyavia and Pomerania (theory of gateway centres). Both Teutonic Knights’ towns belonged to a network of centres later included to the Hanseatic League. Despite a common document, their hierarchy was strictly defined. Even in a document from 1251, the master one, the capital role of Chełmno was highlighted, which probably corresponded to the historical tradition and the special position of this centre, from which Chełmno Land took its name.
dc.description.abstract Podsumowanie wiedzy i badań nad początkami Chełmna i Torunia z uwzględnieniem opracowań historycznych oraz najnowszych wyników badań archeologicznych. Omówienie warunków powstania tych ośrodków, czynników kształtowania sieci osadniczej w najbliższym otoczeniu, podkreślenie rangi tradycji miejsca. Wskazanie różnic i podobieństw w funkcjonowaniu Chełmna i Torunia – ważnych elementów struktur osadniczych oraz punktów węzłowych połączeń komunikacyjnych we wczesnym średniowieczu.
dc.language.iso pol
dc.rights Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Poland
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/pl/
dc.subject wczesne średniowiecze
dc.subject ziemia chełmińska
dc.subject przywilej lokacyjny
dc.subject geneza ośrodków miejskich
dc.subject stan badań
dc.title Chełmno i Toruń. Początki miast na ziemi chełmińskiej
dc.title.alternative Chełmno and Toruń. The origins of towns in Chełmno Land
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article

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