Długi wiek XIII – początki krzyżackiej murowanej architektury obronnej na ziemi chełmińskiej w świetle najnowszych badań

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dc.contributor.author Wiewióra, Marcin
dc.date.accessioned 2016-06-16T08:27:13Z
dc.date.available 2016-06-16T08:27:13Z
dc.date.issued 2015-08-25
dc.identifier.citation Archaeologia Historica Polona, Vol. 22, pp. 113-144
dc.identifier.issn 1425-3534
dc.identifier.other doi:10.12775/AHP.2014.006
dc.identifier.uri http://repozytorium.umk.pl/handle/item/3395
dc.description.abstract Castles built by the Teutonic Knights in Che ł mno Land became one of the most characteristic features of the landscape. They served different functions and realized  political, military, economic and propaganda goals. They became visible evidence of  a well-organized state. For many years attempts to compile a comprehensive view of this  area have been undertaken.  This article presents a brief summary of research undertaken in 2005 by the Department  of Archaeology of Architecture, the Institute of Archaeology of the Nicolaus  Copernicus University in Toru ń on castles in Papowo Biskupie, Grudziądz, Radzy ń  Che łmiński, Wąbrzeź no and Kowalewo Pomorskie. Its goal is to attempt to answer fundamental questions related to the origins of the Teutonic Order defensive brick architecture  in Che  ł mno Land. It concerns the details of construction, topography, the spatial layout of castles, determination of the beginning of construction activity as well as the origins  and layout of the oldest fortresses.  Based on results of analyses and those of the research programme, it was assumed  that the initial stages of the erection of defensive masonry buildings proceeded unevenly  and was dependent on a number of factors related to local conditions – the topography  and environment (type, shape and spatial layout of a given object) as well as the political  situation, and not only on the content of the Order’s statutes or regulations de fining the nature and function of spaces needed for the realization of their basic functions. Analyzing  the nature and extent of the construction work of regular castles (Papowo Biskupie and  Radzyń Chełmiński) and earlier castles belonging to irregular objects (e.g. Grudzią dz). It is evident that the latter were built by much less means and effort than the former. Certainly,  this was due to the different political situation, especially in the border zone, which then  stabilized when the regular castles were erected. This effort is evidenced by the degree  of involvement and extent of the initial preparatory works (earthworks), which required  a significant participation of men and fi nancial resources. Moreover, it was established that construction work on many castles were probably carried out later than was previously  assumed (masonry phase). Nor in all cases was there earlier settlements and there is no  convincing evidence for such an assumption in the existing research results. The form of  regular defensive edi fices with a square-like plan (the so-called conventual castles) could have occurred and spread in the last years of the 13   th or early 14th  century as indicated by the results of   recent research on the castles in Chełmno Land.
dc.description.abstract Problematyka badań archeologiczno-architektonicznych zamków krzyżackich jest od wielu lat przedmiotem ożywionych studiów i badań, ale do tej pory – – z różnych względów – nie doczekała się całościowego podsumowania. W artykule przedstawiono najnowsze podsumowanie wyników badań kilku zamków krzyżackich ziemi chełmińskiej – w Papowie Biskupim, Radzyniu Chełmińskim, Wąbrzeźnie, Grudziądzu i Kowalewie Pomorskim – prowadzonych przez Instytut Archeologii UMK w Toruniu.
dc.language.iso pol
dc.rights Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Poland
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/pl/
dc.subject ziemia chełmińska
dc.subject zamki krzyżackie
dc.subject badania archeologiczno-architektoniczne
dc.subject historia architektury
dc.subject archeologia
dc.title Długi wiek XIII – początki krzyżackiej murowanej architektury obronnej na ziemi chełmińskiej w świetle najnowszych badań
dc.title.alternative The long 13th century – the beginnings of the Teutonic Order defensive masonry architecture in Chełmno Land in light of recent research
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article

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