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Traseologia w badaniach krzemieniarstwa najstarszych społeczności rolniczych na Niżu Polskim. Materiały krzemienne kultury ceramiki wstęgowej rytej ze stanowiska 5 w Bocieniu, gm. Chełmża, woj. kujawsko-pomorskie

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dc.contributor.author Małecka-Kukawka, Jolanta
dc.date.accessioned 2014-01-21T14:37:52Z
dc.date.available 2014-01-21T14:37:52Z
dc.date.issued 2014-01-13
dc.identifier.citation Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia, Vol. 32, pp. 113-160
dc.identifier.issn 0137-6616
dc.identifier.other doi:10.12775/AUNC_ARCH.2012.003
dc.identifier.uri http://repozytorium.umk.pl/handle/item/1584
dc.description.abstract The multicultural site 5 in Bocień was discovered in 1996 during a surface survey conducted in association with a planned construction of the A1 motorway. The excavations of the site were carried out in 1999. The analysis of cultural strata, archaeological features’ spatial relationship and functions as well as that of ceramic material showed that in case of the earliest settlement horizon associated with Linear Band Pottery culture there are at least two phases of occupation. These are linked with phases II and III of the culture’s development in Kuyavia and Chełmno Land. Remnants of two long houses of timber post construction along with functionally associated features were assigned to phase II. In addition two more feature concentrations were also linked with this phase. The first household is composed of an assemblage of postholes (house no. 1) and features: 108, 117, 119, 152, 153, the second household is another relict of a post construction longhouse along with features: 93, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 165, 166. Concentrations of features not related to buildings were defined as the southern concentration (features: 67, 69, 72, 74, 79, 81, 82, 83) and the south-western concentration (features: 88, 89, 90, 91). A later phase of occupation of the settlement is stylistically associated with phase III of Linear Band Pottery culture’s development in Chełmno Land represented by features: 104, 131, 139, 140, 145, 151. The vast majority of the flint material is related to the Early Neolithic settlement of the Linear Band Pottery culture (of a total of 305 fl intobjects 240 come from features associated with this culture and 9 more come from the likewise linked layer II). Other flint objects came from topsoil and cultural layer I (of a multicultural character) and from few features of younger dating. Further analyses (morphological, source material, and traceological) were conducted on material classified as Linear Band Pottery culture related. The analysis of flint material provided valuable data. Although, in comparison to other sites of this culture known from Chełmno Land the flint products are relatively few, it is extremely important that they can be assigned to specific features (functional structures) within the settlement. Considering the source material used (predominantly chocolate flint imported from southern regions of Poland) and products’ morphologic character (flint working techniques and the set of morphological tool forms), the structure of the analysed inventory does not differ much from that of other known Linear Band Pottery culture site flint inventories of the Polish Plain. The most important data on the oldest settlement of an agricultural community in Chełmno Land is related to the complexes of houses along with associated functional structure. The most interesting observation arising directly from the traceological analysis is that there is a large number of tools related to the „animal economy”. The „southern” concentration of features, located some 50–60 meters from buildings’ relics, was recognized as the buildings’ economic background area. According to a set of functional tools uncovered there, as well as the analysis results of the other categories of objects (animal bones, stone artifacts) this location seems to be a place associated with various types of work related to sharing of animal carcasses, cutting meat, cleaning the bones and tanning animal skins, meaning an intensive every day activities. This information allow us to interpret some of the behavioural patterns of the Linear Band Pottery people; the villagers were rational in their own way, they kept their surroundings clean, garbage was deposed in selected, earlier prepared pits. Some „dirty” activities, such as quartering of animal carcasses, separating skin and meat from bones, were conducted in a considerable distance from houses, unnecessary organic residues was probably thrown into pits forming the economic background area of the houses. Possibility to determine the functional differentiation of space within the settlement (in the form of specific utilitarian functions) shows us the importance of the site 5 in Bocień; allowing recognition of the character of the Linear Band Pottery people’s presence in Chełmno Land.
dc.description.abstract Traseologia najczęściej utożsamiana jest z metodą określania realnych funkcji rozmaitych pradziejowych wytworów niemetalowych – nieorganicznych (krzemiennych, obsydianowych, kamiennych) i organicznych (z kości, rogu, poroża) za pomocą analizy mikroskopowej (Małecka-Kukawka 2001, s. 9–14). Rzeczywiście, na poziomie analitycznym, czyli identyfikacji funkcji danego narzędzia, takie pojmowanie wspomnianej metody jest poprawne. Kwestią otwartą pozostaje, jak w dalszych interpretacjach wykorzystana zostanie wiedza o funkcjach wytworów, uzyskana drogą analizy mikroskopowej. Możliwości w tym zakresie wydają się nieograniczone, zaś zakres interpretacji zależy przede wszystkim od przyjmowanych założeń teoretycznych i wynikającej z nich wizji przeszłej rzeczywistości (por. szerzej Małecka-Kukawka 2001, s. 178–184; Osipowicz 2010, s. 243–254). Wskazując tylko kilka potencjalnych możliwości, analiza traseologiczna umożliwia określenie zróżnicowania prac wykonywanych narzędziami pradziejowymi (rekonstrukcja elementów gospodarki), czy stwierdzenie zróżnicowania funkcjonalnego w obrębie pozostałości po osadnictwie (np. stref związanych z dzieleniem tusz zwierzęcych, obróbką kości, poroża, skór, mięsa). W połączeniu z analizami szczątków kostnych poddawanych obróbce narzędziami krzemiennymi oraz z wynikami analiz innych kategorii źródeł, możemy uzyskać wyjątkową bazę danych, pozwalającą na ważne interpretacje z zakresu życia codziennego i zachowań ludzkich na przestrzeni tysiącleci. W taki sposób rozumienia celów wykonywanych analiz źródeł, pozyskanych podczas badań wykopaliskowych, wpisuje się niniejszy artykuł.
dc.language.iso pol
dc.rights Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Poland
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/pl/
dc.title Traseologia w badaniach krzemieniarstwa najstarszych społeczności rolniczych na Niżu Polskim. Materiały krzemienne kultury ceramiki wstęgowej rytej ze stanowiska 5 w Bocieniu, gm. Chełmża, woj. kujawsko-pomorskie
dc.title.alternative Traceology in studies of the fl int industry of the oldest farming communities in the Polish Lowlands. Flint material of the Linear Band Pottery culture from site 5 in Bocień, Chełmża commune, Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodes
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article


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